Nucleus – this is where the chromosomes are, containing the genes. It is surrounded by cytoplasm and contained within an inner and outer membrane
Nucleoplasm – the stuff inside the nucleus
Cytoplasm – the part of the cell outside the nucleus. This is where metabolic reactions happen. The fluid part of the cytoplasm is called cytosol, and within the cytosol and nucleoplasm are organelles which each have a function determined by their structure
The more hydrogen atoms a solution has, the more acidic it is; the more hydroxyl it has, indicates how alkaline the solution is. If the solution has an equal number of hydrogen and hydroxyl, it is neutral.
This is where a hydrogen electron is drawn to another atom, leaving a proton behind which leaves the hydrogen atom with a positive charge. The proton is then attracted to negatively charged atoms of oxygen or nitrogen in nearby molecules.
Atoms share pairs of electrons (rather than donating as in ionic bonding). A single pair bonding atoms is a single bond, and obviously, a double bond is formed when a double pair is involved.
A nonpolar covalent bond involves the even distribution of electrons; when the bond is polar, the electrons are shared unevenly between two atoms which creates a slight charge at the ends of the molecule. The charge is positive where the electrons spend the least time and negative where they spend the most time.
An isotope is an element in another form – it has the required nnumber of protons and electrons, but it has a different number of neutrons, which means its atomic weight differs from the regular form of the element.
There are seven of these known to exist, they are formed concentrically around the nucleus of an atom and contain electrons. There are never more than two electrons in the shell nearest the nucleus. More electrons are in the outer shells. Only the electrons in the outer shell can participate in chemical reactions. The shell is stable when it has the maximum number of electrons possible. If the shell is unstable, it will gain, lose, or share electorns with other atoms.