Urine Testing:

Appearance Indications
Green Pseudomonas
Presence of bilirubin
Pink or red ?beetroot Blood, haemoglobin, phenindone
Orange Excess urobilinogen, rifampacin
Yellow Bilirubin
Brown Bilirubin, alkaptonuria
Debris Indications
Cloudy Infection, stale sample
Sediment Infection, contaminated sample
 Odour  Indications
Fishy Infection
Sweet smelling / acetone Ketones, acetone
 Dipstick  Potential Indications
Glucose Diabetes mellitus Cushing’s syndrome Acute pancreatitis
Ketones Starvation Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
Bilirubin and urobilinigen Hepatic or biliary disease Chirosis Destruction of erythrocytes
Protein Renal disease UTI Pyelonephritis Hypertension Pre-eclampsiaCongestive cardiac failureProtein in men may be due to sperm following sex
Blood Trauma UTI Renal stones Sulphonomides Urinary tract tumourMenstruationLocal contamination
Nitrites UTI
Leukocytes Bladder or renal infection
Ph>7 Infection, fever, gout, metabolic acidosis
Specific gravity (normal range 1010-1025) Concentrated urine Dehydration Excess fluid intake Renal disease Diabetes insipidus

Taken from Nursing in Practice July/August 2011 Number 61.

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