Covalent bonding

Atoms share pairs of electrons (rather than donating as in ionic bonding). A single pair bonding atoms is a single bond, and obviously, a double bond is formed when a double pair is involved.

A nonpolar covalent bond involves the even distribution of electrons; when the bond is polar, the electrons are shared unevenly between two atoms which creates a slight charge at the ends of the molecule. The charge is positive where the electrons spend the least time and negative where they spend the most time.

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